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Votes and Comments 

Participant

Institution/Country

Vote

Confidence level

Comment

Annu Kotiranta

Research Institute of the Finnish Economy/Finland

Disagree

7

In Finland the public R&D support to companies (Tekes funding) has been cut significantly during the past few years. Increases in the support level are needed to boost the regressive private company R&D. The lack of skilled workers calls for renewal of the education system, rather than additional funding. Extended Comment: The Finnish economy is still suffering from the recession triggered by the financial crisis in 2009. Rather than keeping the current low public R&D support level, funding of public R&D to companies should be restored. The lack of skilled workers hindering the development of some industry branches calls for renewal of the education system, rather than additional funding.

Catalina Martínez García

CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies/Spain

Uncertain

8

Investment in education and S&T personnel should always be supported, as it increases the absorptive capacity of firms and thus their ability to innovate themselves or to adopt the innovations made by others, but should be complementary of (not a substitute to) public support to business R&D which is aimed to increase the level of business R&D and innovation by solving market failures. For instance, public support for business R&D can include incentives to hire S&T personnel, when there is insufficient demand of highly skilled personnel from firms, which is the case in many countries.

Chan-Yuan Wong

University of Malaya/Malaysia

Agree

8

Government R&D grants and tax breaks may do little to in the developed world. Grant and tax can be instrumental tools to be applied in the developing world as they seek a routine for business R&D activities.

Charles Edquist

Lund University/Sweden

Did Not Answer

David Teece

University of California Berkeley/United States

Did Not Answer

Dirk Meissner

National Research University Higher School of Economics/Russia

Did Not Answer

Dominique Foray

École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne/Switzerland

Disagree

10

According to Nobel Prize laureate J.Tinbergen : different types of externalities or market failures require different types of instruments.

Ebrahim Souzanchi Kashani

Sharif University of Technology/Iran

Disagree

8

I think this is not a matter of national decision. It depends on sectors and for a nation, it therefore depends on the sectoral composition of it. In some sectors, which depends much on R&D, the role of government in funding Research needs to increase such as pharmaceuticals. In others, it needs to provide appropriate rules and regulations. In some others it may need to intervene directly. Therefore, Although I disagree with putting extra monies on education, I also disagree with the opossite as well. I think that all decisions should be taken with a sectors specific point of view.

Frédérique Sachwald

Observatoire des sciences et des techniques (OST)/France

No Opinion

Ganesh Rasagam

World Bank

Did Not Answer

Ian Hughes

Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation/Ireland

Disagree

8

It remains a priority in many OECD countries to incentive businesses to increase their investment in RD&I, and in many cases it is arguably the case that simply introducing additional direct and indirect supports may have little effect in increasing BERD. What matters more and more is the overall environment within which firms are investing - infrastructures for the commercialisation and diffusion of new innovations, the innovative capacity of public service deliverers such as health and education, demand side policies such as innovative public procurement, challenge-driven initiatives which involve government, business and civil society in partnership, to name a few. While investment in education plays a crucial role in making the overall environment more conducive to business investment in RD&I, investing in education alone will not have the desired effect of substantially increasing BERD.

Jaideep Prabhu

University of Cambridge/United Kingdom/India

Did Not Answer

Jan Wessels

VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik/Germany

Agree

7

The German example of comparatively low rates of public funding shows that strong innovation orientation of companies is not necessarily depending on high percentage of public money. Skilled workers are a central condition for successful innovation strategies. But close collaboration of companies and research institutes is also of high importance – and may be strengthened by publicly funded projects.

Juan Mateos-Garcia

National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA)/United Kingdom

Did Not Answer

Kaye Fealing

Georgia Tech/United States

Did Not Answer

Keun Lee

Seoul National University Korea

Did Not Answer

Luc Soete

UNU-Merit/Netherlands

Did Not Answer

Luis Sanz-Menendez

CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies/Spain

Strongly Agree

10

The current level of direct and indirect support for BIG COMPANNIES (as appears in Official statistics) is already high and there is risk of having crowding out effects and subsitiion. Probably the issue is to change the instruments to support business R&D and to concentrate support in SMEs, start ups, etc. (and not in "big" firms) and to promote cooperation with public sector. There is also a "hidden" support channeled through the financial market (repayable loans, or guarantees) that are not included in the estimates of the support.

Luiz Martins de Melo

Funding Authority for Studies and Projects (FINEP)/Brazil

Disagree

10

Public support is indispensable to innovating at the frontiers of science and technology. Public funding is able and willing to take risks and tackle the high uncertainty.

Magnus Gulbrandsen

University of Oslo/Norway

Uncertain

4

To me, this is a too complex issue to answer with a clear general statement that does not take the context into account.

Margaret Kyle

MINES ParisTech/France

Uncertain

5

Many studies find large returns to government R&D support and that businesses respond to tax incentives and other policies. The effects vary by industry and type of funding scheme. It is not clear that any country is currently at the optimal level.

Mari Jose Aranguren

Basque Institute of Competitiveness/Spain

Uncertain

2

-

Marina Yue Zhang

University of New South Wales/Australia

Did Not Answer

Mark Dodgson

University of Queensland/Australia

Disagree

8

R&D tax breaks are useful in aiding decisions on Boards of Directors that are full of lawyers and accountants and see R&D as a cost, not an investment.

Maryann Feldman

University of North Carolina/United States

Did Not Answer

Melissa Ardanche

Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica/Uruguay

Strongly Agree

10

To have better results, a balance between financial incentives for increasing private R&D investment and the strengthening of national human resources must be achieved. Knowledge and learning capacity embodied in people always remains like an active, while private investment (especially those coming from international firms) is constantly moving, often because of reasons not related with national policy measures. I strongly belive that financial incentives would be more effective in order to a developmental objective within highly trained S&T human resources contexts, learning contexts with high and distributed skills that only public investment can get.

Mohamed Ramadan

Academy of Scientific Research and Technology/Egypt

Disagree

7

The development of a clear policy to support of R & D in business is very importance especially when the business don't care with the R&D, the support has many forms but the most one is what related to expenditure, through tax incentive, subsidize of raw material or other form but the firms must be find a fixed mechanism from government to ensure apply that.

Oliver Gassmann

University of St. Gallen/Switzerland

Did Not Answer

Paola Giuri

University of Bologna/Italy

Agree

7

Additional public support can produce decreasing effect on private investments in R&D and innovation, especially because of substitution effects of additional public spending with diverse policy tools.

Patries Boekholt

Technopolis/Netherlands

Strongly Disagree

8

Additional public money for business R&D could come with conditions –such as collaboration - and a high ambition levels –ensuring that public money is spent on high risk and next generation technologies. In addition, public spending on business R&D could encourage investments in innovations that contribute to addressing societal challenges.

Reinhilde Veugelers

KU Leuven/Belgium

Did Not Answer

Robert Atkinson

Information Technology and Innovation Foundation/United States

Strongly Disagree

9

Many companies wont invest in risky r and d projects unless government cost shares at least some of it to derisk it. Government support can go a long way to convince parsimonious CFOs to open up the company wallet.

Sami Mahroum

INSEAD/United Arab Emirates

Did Not Answer

Sonja Radas

The Institute of Economics, Zagreb/Croatia

Strongly Disagree

9

Many studies show that R&D grants are effective in raising the level of R&D in companies. The statement above assumes some sort of ceiling effect, which has not been demonstrated. Also, R&D grants help shoulder the risk of radical innovation, which is crucial for EU competitiveness.

Stefan Kuhlmann

University of Twente/Netherlands

Agree

7

A better supply with highly skilled R&D staff is most important.

Susana Borrás

Copenhagen Business School/Denmark

Did Not Answer

Sylvia Schwaag Serger

Vinnova/Sweden

Disagree

7

Education and training are very important but public support to business R&D can play a powerful role in promoting innovation if/when it is linked to demand (eg SBIR schemes in various countries). Also public support to business R&D can play a significant role in promoting innovation to address societal challenges, i.e. allowing for a more directional innovation policy. There is a constant need, however, to evaluate public support to business R&D to assess its impact and efficiency but greater focus should be placed on systemic effects.

Uri Gabai

Israel Innovation Authority

Disagree

7

There is no generic answer here as it relates to the state of the innovation ecosystem. If BERD is high and supply of skilled tech labour is rigid (and in big demand), the marginal return for government investment in R&D is indeed lower. However smart government funding aims to direct R&D efforts to areas where private investors would be reluctant to invest on their own, thus maintaining competitively and tech leadership in the long run.

Uwe Cantner

Friedrich Schiller University Jena/Germany

Agree

5

This statement is not easy to judge because it depends on the country, France is different to Germany. Therefore I am inclined to agree, although for some countriues I have doubts, e.g. France.

Wolfgang Polt

Janneum Research/Austria

Did Not Answer

Yasunori Baba

University of Tokyo/Japan

Did Not Answer

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